02 Mar

Work Performance Information and Work performance measurement

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Work Performance Information: Provides information on Project progress. What has started, what has finished and what is the progress of the deliverables which have started.

Work Performance Measurement: This contains the calculated SV and SPI values for various deliverables. This is circulated to stakeholders.
WPI is an input for producing Work Performance Measurement.

21 Jan

Critical Path vs Critical Chain

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Critical Path Method:

1. This calculates the time period a project is likely to take when there
are no limitations on resources.
2. Activity dependencies, leads,lags and other constraints (known) are
3. This provides Early and Late start and finish dates.
4. Identifies the critical activities ( Which are on the critical path,
needs extra attention, as slippage in these may cause whole project to
Critical Chain Method:

1. A technique where resource limitation is applied to arrive at a Project
2. The critical path may be altered after applying the resource
3. Feeding buffers and project buffers are added.
4. Critical chain does not use resource leveling.
Note: Resource leveling is used when resources are over allocated. Critical
chain method takes into account of resource availability.

21 Jan

5.4 Verify Scope

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Formalizing acceptance of the completed project deliverables. Reviewing deliverables with customer or sponsor to ensure they are completed satisfactorily and obtaining formal acceptance of deliverables by the customer or sponsor.

It is not about getting the scope right, but it is about gaining acceptance from customer/ sponsor through meetings to gain formal acceptance during monitoring and control.



Project Management Plan

  • Project Scope Statement
  • WBS
  • WBS Dictionary

Requirements Documentation –

Requirements Traceability Matrix –

Validated Deliverables – from Perform Quality Control Process.



Tools and Techniques:




Accepted Deliverables

Change Requests

Those completed deliverables that have not been formally accepted are documented, along with the reasons for non acceptance. Those deliverables may require a change request for defect repair. These change requests are then run through the Perform Integrated Change Control Process.


Project Document Updates

21 Jan

5.3 Create WBS

Top down approach to divide project deliverables and work into smaller, more manageable components. The WBS organizes and defines the total scope of the project, and represents the work specified in the current approved project scope statement. This is deliverable oriented approach and includes project scope, product scope and project management efforts. This is created with help of the team under the leadership of Project Manager.

Control Account:  Used to estimate costs from a higher level. (Not at work package level.)

Notes: Normally, first level of decomposition is project life cycle, but there are other approaches such as major deliverables/ subprojects (outsourcing) at level1. WBS is also used as a communication tool. This can be also be used as a team building activity.

WBS can be used to: evaluate scope change, control scope creep, comms tool, role mapping. It doesn’t show dependencies.



Project Scope Statement

Requirements Documentation



Tools and Techniques:


The WBS can be created with following approaches:

1.      Phases of Project Life cycle as first level of decomposition.

2.      Major Deliverables as first level of decomposition.

3.      Using subprojects which may be developed outside of the team. (Contracts, Outsourcing)

The project team waits till the deliverable or subproject is clarified before WBS can be developed. This technique is referred as ‘rolling wave planning’. Decomposition is not possible that will be accomplished far into the future.

WBS represents all product and project work, including the project management work. The total of the work at the lowest levels must roll up to higher levels so that nothing is left out and no extra work is completed. This is also referred to as a 100% rule.



 WBS Dictionary – used to prevent scope creep.

 Scope Baseline – Project Scope Statement, WBS and WBS dictionary.

 Project Document Updates – such as Requirements Documentation, when approved change requests result from Create WBS process.

21 Jan

5.1 Collect Requirements

Defining and documenting stakeholder needs. Requirements include quantified and documented needs and expectations of the sponsor, customer and other stakeholders. Requirements become the basis of WBS, Cost, Schedule and Quality Planning.


Project Charter – Output from 4.1

Stakeholder Register – Output from 10.1

Tools and Techniques

Interviews – Direct with stakeholders/ subject matter experts.

Focus Groups – prequalified stakeholders and subject matter experts with help of trained moderator.

Facilitated Workshops –

JAD – Joint Application Development

QFD – Quality Function Deployment (product development) using VOC – voice of customer.

Group Creativity Techniques

–          Brainstrorming

–          Nominal Group Technique – Brainstorming with voting process.

–          The Delphi Technique – Questionnaires from Experts to facilitator, anonymity

–          Idea/ Mind Mapping – Ideas from brainstorming consolidated to a map. Looks like several trees are generated from a core word.

–          Affinity Diagram –  ideas sorted into groups. Helps in identifying additional scope/ risks, not identified earlier.

–          Questionnaire’s and Surveys – not in PMBOK

–          Observation

–           Prototypes

Group Decision Making Techniques

–          Unanimity

–          Majority

–          Plurality – largest block and majority not achieved aka single largest party.

–          Dictatoship

Questionnaires and Surveys





Requirements Documentation

Requirements Management Plan

Requirements Traceability Matrix

21 Jan

What is PMBOK

PMBOK or Project Management body of knowledge is a manual or guide published by PMI (Project Management Institute) to assist practicing project managers. This guide aims to provide processes by following which, likelihood of a success of project increases.


This manual lists processes in two classifications, by knowledge areas and process groups. Currently, version 4 is the followed guide. Overall, this version talks about 42 processes.

This is a comprehensive guide which provides a close insight to Project Management. A must for all project managers and bible for PMP aspirants.

15 Oct

Difference between control Limits and specification limits

Specification Limits are set by the customer, but control limits are normally set to plus minus three sigma. A process may not require any remedial action if the specification limits are outside control limits, similarly, a process which is under control limits will definitely require some action if customer specified limits are inside control limits. So a data point which lies outside the specification limit but is under control will not be acceptable to the customer. This is a constraint imposed by the customer.

To learn more about control charts, click here

Recommended reading: PMBOK

03 Oct

Control Charts

Control Charts: are used for determining stability of a process. Important
terms are:

USL – Upper Specification Limit
LSL – Lower Specification Limit
UCL – Upper Control Limit
LCL – Lower Control Limit

First two are set by customer and last two are normally (+-) 3 Sigma.
Normally used to track repititive activities, sometimes they are also used
to monitor

cost and schedule variances, volume and frequency of scope changes.

A process is out of control when seven consecutive data points are above or
below the mean.

19 Sep

Ishikawa – Cause and Effect diagrams

These diagrams are also called as Cause and Effect diagrams or Fishbone diagrams as they resemble a Fishbone. These are also used in risk analysis.Here the causes are grouped into categories, this helps in identifying the root cause of the problem.


The categories may include:


For manufacturing industry- 8 Ms are used.
in Service industry – 8 Ps are used.

Note: A root cause can be uncovered by asking why or how continuously. This is a common technique.

For Related question, visit this LINK

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